By Dudi Amir
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As the industry moves toward thinner and smaller products, the packages and boards become thinner with finer pitch. On the other hand, increased functionality and performance derive homogenous integration and larger packages with growing weight, 3D packages, and thermal solutions on top of the package. This industry trend is bringing many challenges to the SMT assembly of ball grid array (BGA) packages. There is an increase in SMT defects seen like non-wet type of defects and head-on-pillow defects (HoP). These defects are hard to detect after SMT assembly and most likely will fail at the customer.
The objective of this tutorial is to cover the most common BGA failures in electronic assemblies. The causes of each failure will be explained and examples of each will be detailed. It will discuss how to identify the root cause and give the best solutions to prevent the defect to have a robust SMT assembly process. A few case studies will be reviewed as well.